Yadavas of Devagiri





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Yadavas of Devagiri

The Yadavas of Devagiri was a dynasty that came to rule Maharashtra in a long line of Hindu Vedic dynasties starting with the Satavahanas since 200 BCE, culminating in the Yadavas around 1271 CE. This was the last independent kingdom in Maharashtra, subjugated by the Sultanate at Delhi.

Samrat Mahadevrao Yadav

Maharashtra’s glory went on increasing from Satavahanas to Devagiri’s Samrat Mahadevrao Yadav (from 200 BCE to 1271 CE). There was no dearth in his kingdom. His subjects loved him wholeheartedly. He was brave but not cruel. He did not hurt his adversary’s women and children, as well as those who surrendered! In recognition of this avowed policy of Mahadevrao, the King of Malva had installed a small child on his throne. And the Andhra king was even more foresighted. He had enthroned a woman named Rudramba in his kingdom. This was the reputation of the Marathi Yadav kings.

All-round Fame

In the Yadav Empire of Devagiri, there had been powerful kings like Bhillam, Singhan, Krishnadev, up to Mahadevrao. There had been military commanders equal to Arjuna in their valour, like Kholeshwar, Bichandev, Shankardev. There were saints like Gundamraul, Govindprabhu, Chakradhar Swami, Mukundaraj, Gahininath. There were astronomers like Bhaskaracharya and Lakshmidhar. There were great healers like Keshav and Dhanesh. There were philosophers like Anantadev, Amalanand, Changdev. There were great musicians like Sharangadhar. There were talented poets like Narasimha, Narendra, Shailya. Besides students of arts and lore like sculpture, dance, architecture used to be eternally patronised by the Yadav kingdom. Only the summit remained to be achieved for Maharashtra’s temple of talent. And that was achieved by the saints. Maharashtra got the kings that were desired, even the people’s hearts were comparable to kings. Maharashtra’s Prime Minister was a scholar, diplomatic genius. He was an expert in sculpture. He had a command on multiple languages, was a poet, brave, and righteous. His name was Hemadri.

Maharashtra’s Garud-dhwaj (standard) used to flutter high over the Yadava Capital Devagiri. With pride and glory.

Religious Equality

Maharashtra’s Kings were really successful and famous. Goddess Shakti was delighted with Maharashtra. Yadav Kings were tolerant of all religions. They had Muslim and Parsi subjects as well, happily living in the kingdom. Arabs were involved in trading. There has been a reference of one of the Yadav kings making the provision for the regular income of a Masjid. There was complete freedom in Maharashtra, to people who wanted to pray to God. From hardcore Muslims to softer Jains, everyone had their prayer halls in the capital.

Cultural Heights

Devagiri, Patan, Paithan, Sinnar, Dharashiv, Mehkar, Washim, Nagardhan, Nasik, Karhad, Karvir, Gopakpattan (Goa), Dive Agar, Nalasopara, Ambarnath, Bhadrawati, Kalyan, etc. cities were beautiful and wealthy. They had numerous three storey houses. Large houses, excellent kingly mansions, temples, excellent wells, tanks, built up ghats for rivers, everything was decorated inch-and-inch with sculpture. Marathi hammer and chisel had such romantic effect, that if one touched the carved flowers on the walls, they would feel as if they were touching Urvashi’s cheek and would get goose-bumps. The artists here made the stones laugh, dance, sulk, and feel bashful as well.

A Jain shreshthi named Prithvidhar had built a very vast and beautiful temple in Devagiri. This Shwetambar Jain temple was Devagiri’s speciality. If one looked at all the beautiful idols in temples, like Mehkar’s Sharangadhar, Shendurni’s Trivikrama, Paithan’s Narasimha, Elichpur’s Kartikeya, Karhad’s Uttaralakshmi, Tuljapur’s Bhawani, those would even beat Indrani, Mohini, Rambha, Urvashi and Rati-Madan from the heavens, in their beauty. The first look itself would take the breath away. No wonder then that the devotees would be hooked for life. The same beauty was displayed in, Bhagwan Buddha’s and twenty-four Tirthankaras’ idols. These Buddhist and Jain gods were asceticism personified. Venerable sanctity. This ascetic abstinence was so beautiful, that it would melt away all the distractions produced by six principle enemies (Shad-Ripus) of men. The sculptors of all these extraordinary sculptures would themselves be such ascetic artists! All these royal artists had never allowed themselves to be touched by vane pride.

Commercial Prosperity

The markets of Maharashtra were rich. Paithan’s worked Paithani sarees and Pitambar-Shelas had special demand in marriages. Market towns like Paithan and Shurparak were famous since the time of Ashoka. Other Kings and Queens used to flock to these market towns for their shopping. It was almost as if the sculptors and weavers competed with each other with their skills. Goddess Saraswati seemed to have blessed both profusely.

The trade-routes and mountain-passes in this Swarajya had watering holes. They had caravanserais, food courts. Every house had traditional lamps, tulsi-vrindavans, and rocking cradles. Mortars and grindstones overflowed with food-grains. There was no dearth of milk and milk-products. Every house used to have home-churned buttermilk. Housewives would never eat themselves before feeding cattle. Even birds were fed. Guests were welcome. The golden bangles in women’s wrists used to erode naturally like nutmeg, while washing clothes on the river ghats. Still nobody’s wife would go empty handed without the usual gold-pearl ornaments. The doors did not have latches, nobody had seen locks, nobody was bothered about losing keys. Thieves were not to be found. Everybody was satisfied in their life. It was as if, all twelve full-moons in the year were showering their benign light over Maharashtra using Lakshmi’s hands.

Intellectual Achievements

Nava-Navonmesh-Shalini (the one behind new inspiration) Goddess Saraswati was showering all her wisdom with all four hands. It was a good time for knowledge. Yadav court used to be lit with the radiance of intellectual suns and moons, like Hemadripandit and Bopadev. Almost like Brihaspati and Shukracharya in the heavens. The two poet brothers, Narendra and Narasimha used to write such sweet poetry, that one could feel their ink was laced with honey.

Maharashtrian poets did not produce against a demand. Also, whatever they produced, they never marketed for sale. They never wavered from the righteous path. Never displayed helplessness. The pen of such talented masters, was presenting a well-choreographed dance. No wonder great many experts filled the royal courts.

First Attack - Allauddin Khilji

And a terrible thing happened! Dust clouds rose from behind the Vindhyas. Thirty-two thousand hooves of eight thousand horses came galloping at Maharashtra with increasing speed and passion. Eight thousand Afghans attacked. Afghan throats crying hoarse, sword-wielding Afghan wrists, with chests like bellows, came running like crazy and attacked Deccan. Their passion was similar to marauders. Their weapons were blazing with hunger.

Their leader was Allauddin Khilji. Pathan. Their war cries rent the skies. Cracking the directions themselves. Raising the dust. Crushing the soil beneath unseeing hooves. The Pathan army crossed the Narmada and climbed Satpura range. The crescent moon standard was planted atop the Satpura. These Pathans first made Elichpur their target. The cries of women resonated through the vastness. Maharashtra’s independence was lost. Poornama’s Berar households (a reference to the erstwhile lady ruler) had never known such demonic calamity.

The terrible news of this Pathan invasion hit Devagiri. Actually, for the last two hundred years, these Sultans who came to India via the Khyber-pass, were ruling Delhi, and their ambitions of capturing the whole of India, and propagate their own religion, culture, and history all over the country, had been proven beyond doubt with experience. Still, most of the kings and rulers in the South were neglecting this, which resulted in this attack. Just a few days back, the groups of saints in Maharashtra had visited the places of pilgrimage in North India. They had all witnessed the Sultanate rule there. Some had also faced some bitter experiences. Those experiences had also been shared back with local people. Still the king and subjects, both were inattentive.

Arj-e-Mamluk Allauddin Khilji. One extremely terrible scourge. He was a nephew of Delhi’s Sultan Jalaluddin Khilji. He was married to Jalaluddin’s daughter, i.e. his own cousin, thereby making him Jalaluddin’s son-in-law as well.

Raja Ramdevrao (of Devagiri) got the wind of this stormy invasion by Allauddin a little late. The Pathans crossed the Narmada and Satpura mountain, and entered Elichpur, which meant they had entered at least a hundred Kos (i.e. around three-hundred-and-twenty-five kilometres) inside his kingdom, and nobody had tried to stop them? Then, where was our army? Our king was senseless. But what was our Commander-in-Chief doing? Who was the Commander? Raja Ramdevrao’s Yuvraj (Prince) was the Commander himself. His name was Shankardev alias Singhandev. He had gone to some far-off place with the whole army. Possibly to some pilgrimage!

First Battle - Ghat Lajora

Allauddin’s army was galloping towards Devagiri. Ramdevrao was staring at a terrible fate. He gave whatever army that was left to a feudatory prince and sent him quickly towards Ghat Lajora. The Yadav Army reached Lajora. Allauddin also arrived. The Pathans hit this army with full force. The fury of the battle rose, and Yadav army was cut off in a moment like plantain.

Khilji scattered the first attack like dry leaves on wind, and again started towards Devagiri. What numbers did Khilji have? Only eight thousand.

Second Battle & Siege of Devagiri

Just a few days ago, he had attacked Vidisha. That time he had heard of the immeasurable wealth of Devagiri. That was when his desire was triggered. He finalised the plan to attack and loot the prosperous kingdom. He had already got countless loot in Vidisha itself. He sent it to Delhi. His father-in-law Jalaluddin was overjoyed at that. He gave Allauddin the respected designation of Arj-e-Mamluk. Arj-e-Mamluk meant the senior-most officer of the royal army. He was a Subedar at Karha-manikpur near Kanpur. He took just eight thousand cavalry and started towards Devagiri. Allauddin had directly attacked the capital of the Marathi Empire, which was well-known as independent and strong, and which was five hundred Kos from his own kingdom. We must appreciate that he had a tiger’s courage. Allauddin started from Manikpur around December 1293. From Bundelkhand to Malva to Vindhyachal, then to Narmada and on to Satpura, from there to Elichpur and then straight on to Devagiri!

New-moon fortnight of Magh month was on. When Allauddin almost reached near Devagiri, Raja Ramdevrao was going to a temple. Suddenly he spied dust clouds over the horizon, and saw the Khilji army approach. Even before the news of defeat of Ghat Lajora, Khilji himself had reached Devagiri. All the residents started running here and there. War drums started roaring from the fort. But the army itself was not in place. The city and the fort had just four thousand soldiers. Ramdevrao gathered whatever he had and started against the enemy. Around two Kos from Devagiri he encountered the out-of-control Khilji. The battle ignited and was extinguished before it could roar. Yadav army could not withstand the Pathan onslaught. It started running towards the fort. King himself entered the fort and ordered the doors to be closed. Devgiri town was beneath the fort. That came under Khilji’s attack. Yadav subjects fell prey to the Afghans. Devgiri’s modesty came under the Pathan raid. Their cries only turned sorry. The loot started in earnest. Thousands of excellent horses and thirty elephants were captured by the enemy. While the loot was going on Khilji laid siege to the fort. Devgiri fort was very strong and invincible.

After besieging the fort, Khilji started a rumour that this current army was only an advance battalion. Actual larger army has started from Delhi, and will be reaching shortly. The rumour spread like wildfire. This became known to Ramdevrao on the fort as secret news. He grew all the more worrisome. The news of this Pathan invasion on Devagiri also spread to other kings in Telangana, Karnataka, Gujarat. But nobody came to their aid. Pathans were just eight thousand strong. But the rumours they had raised, had the strength of One and a quarter lakh.

But the fort of Devagiri was well-stocked with food supplies. This was the only lucky thing. Ramdevrao was definitely capable of holding his fort for many months with those provisions. The construction of the fort was such that it was impossible for the enemy to enter. Khilji would have won the fort only if someone turned traitor or the provisions finished. The King was confident that he had full food provisions in the fort. But one mess-up happened! The supposed food provisions stored by the traders in the fort were not actually food. It was salt! Ramdevrao heard this news and just lost his confidence. Because he found that actual food in the fort was sufficient to last only two or three days. Sturdy Devagiri threw her arms in the air. No army in place, no food provisions, in front of a terrible enemy. No hope of any help from outside, and news of an even larger force coming from Delhi! Now there was only one way! Surrender. Unconditional. Pathans kept on their attacks on the fort.


With a heavy heart, Ramdevrao informed Allauddin that he was ready to surrender. The Pathans started rejoicing at the victory. Ramdevrao readied up to pay tribute to Allauddin. This was the first surrender and was the beginning of a string of such surrenders. This new tradition of surrender and insults was going to continue for at least three-hundred-and-fifty years.

The surrender treaty was agreed upon. Why would Allauddin, who was more powerful, and had King Ramdevrao in abject surrender, agree upon a treaty? To save his face by agreeing to the tribute, and proceeding to Delhi with it. Allauddin knew, that if Devagiri’s Commander-in-Chief and Prince Shankardev suddenly returned from wherever he had gone, then he was lost. King returned to the fort after agreeing and delivering a huge and costly tribute to the enemy.

At that point, King Ramdevrao heard news that, Prince Shankardev Yadav was rushing towards Devagiri in haste with the huge army. Allauddin also heard this news in his camp. Allauddin’s throat went dry with fear.

Shankardev's Resistance

The moment Shankardev heard of the Pathan attack on Devagiri, he immediately started back towards Devagiri from wherever he was, with the whole army. Hearing that the handful Pathan army had given a dressing down to his own capital, this young brave prince was beside himself in rage. He was running to wipe out this huge insult.

Allauddin saw his impending death clearly, upon hearing that Devagiri’s prince was on his way to attack him and has almost reached. But he was not shaken. He got ready for the battle.

Real fright was in the mind of King Ramdevrao. Maharaj himself started worrying that his son might attack Allauddin passionately in a fit of emotion. Because there was a huge royal force on its way from Delhi, right? Friendship and peace were more important than dying on the battlefield! Now Ramdevrao himself started worrying for Allauddin’s protection. He hurriedly sent a runner to Shankardev. Shankardev had reached a small distance away from Devagiri. The emissary told him the King’s message, that the tribute agreement with Khilji had already been signed. He had agreed to only take the tribute and loot and return back. He should not be attacked, and the stakes should not be raised unnecessarily. Because a huge force which had started from Delhi beforehand, was going to reach soon.

Shankardev got this message from his father. He showed it to a dustbin. He was angry. To him, letting an enemy walk away with the looted wealth and tribute to top it, was like putting out a forest fire by showering it with oil. Instead, Shankardev sent Allauddin a bitter message, that if he worried about his life, then he better hand over the whole loot he had gathered from the Yadav kingdom, and walk free. Otherwise he should get ready to die!

Khilji got this terrible message. His heart skipped a beat. But still he made preparations for the battle. He used to behave in a very planned and disciplined manner, even in tight situations. He prepared skilfully for a stand unto death. He sent from his camp thousand horsemen for the blockade of Devagiri fort, and took the remaining force with himself and started to meet Shankardev in battle.

Third Battle - Shankardev Defeated

Shankardev also met Khilji in anger. Battle started. Shankardev and his army began the spirited fightback. He was confident of beating down Khilji. And that’s what started happening as well. Khilji’s army started wilting under the attack on all sides. The battle was at its peak. These were days of peak summer. It was really hot. Visibility was almost negligible because of the dust that arose. Pathans were failing in front of the Maratha valour. Their time had come. An escape seemed impossible even if they ran away. At that time, the one thousand strong force that had been kept near the fort for blockade, ran to Allauddin’s aid. It had come galloping and crying their war-cries. Their run raised the dust up to the skies. Yadav army saw these dust clouds. Heard Pathan war cries. Yadav army felt that the huge, vast army that was coming from Delhi had reached! It had come! And the garland of success, which had almost made it around Shankardev Yadav’s neck, broke and his Yadav army started running helter-skelter in all directions. A colossal defeat for the Marathas! For no reason! And massacre for the remaining (Dt. 6 February 1294, Saturday).

Ramdevrao didn’t even climb down from the fort for Shankardev’s aid. He kept hiding in the fort due to Khilji’s rumours. If he had come for help, Allauddin would have died with his Pathan army.

Siege Again & Penal Tribute

Allauddin did not follow Shankardev. He invested Devagiri fort again. Ramdevrao was caught in a poser again. He again requested Khilji to grant terms. Khilji kept his demand under the wraps, and grudgingly relented for a treaty. He asked for a larger tribute. Ramdevrao agreed to the same unconditionally, and gave it. Around six hundred maund (an old unit of weight, around 37 kg) gold, seven maund pearls, two maund precious stones, one thousand maund silver, and four thousand bundles of silk were pocketed by Khilji. Besides the loot that he had caught since the beginning was already his. Again, another long list of valuable things was given to Ramdevrao by Khilji. That was also satisfied. Khilji’s court historian Qasim Ferishta couldn’t even believe this much wealth. Most importantly, Allauddin asked for Devagiri’s Maharaja Ramdevrao’s daughter besides all this. He asked for the princess, and Ramdevrao agreed to that as well. This princess was named Jyeshthapalli alias Jethai.

Besides Ramdevrao had to agree to pay an annual tribute to Khilji. Ramdevrao had to again pay the current campaign expenses also in the form of Elichpur pargana. Today’s Samrat became a feudatory prince paying annual tribute. Meaning he became a renter paying rent for occupying Devagiri. Even after being backed by such huge Sahyadri, Maharashtra crumbled in the enemy’s mouthful of water like a small clump of clay.

Yadav eagle lost its feathers. Devagiri’s awe and brilliance was finished in fifteen days by Allauddin. Khilji and Yadav armies fought for fifteen days around Devagiri. Devagiri’s independence was finished in just fifteen days.

Allauddin Ascends Delhi Sultanate's Throne

One year went by. Second year’s tribute went unfailingly, unquestioningly to Delhi and in this same year, Delhi’s throne was bloodied. Allauddin betrayed and murdered Sultan Jalaluddin (Dt 19 July 1295). This Allauddin was Jalaluddin’s nephew. Jalaluddin had brought this nephew up since his birth. Gave him the Subedari of Karha Manikpur. Gave him full rights over the royal army. That is, gave him the post Arje-Mamluk. Not only this, he gave him his own daughter. Made him a son-in-law. He himself killed his own uncle, i.e. father-in-law easily and became the Sultan himself.

After this, the flow of tribute from Devagiri to Delhi continued unabated. Like a bleeding wound. 

Malik Kafur

Pathan hooves again started towards Maharashtra and Devagiri. Because Devagiri’s overwhelmed pride had started raising its head. The annual tribute flowing to Delhi was stopped by Yadav King and Prince Shankardev. The moment the tribute stopped, Allauddin had dispatched thirty thousand strong force with his Commander-in-Chief there. This Commander-in-Chief was named Malik Nayab Kafur Hazar Dinari.

Actually, this Malik Kafur was originally a Gujarati lad from Khambayat. Allauddin had bought him as a slave, when he was very young for a thousand dinars. But after joining Allauddin, he also developed like the villain Ravan. Malik Kafur started on the campaign with thirty-thousand strong army.

For the past three years, Shankardev Yadav had not allowed the tribute to go to Delhi. That was why Allauddin was angry? Yes. That was why he had sent this army? No, not for only this reason. There was one more reason. King Ramdevrao himself had sent a message to Allauddin at Delhi (year 1307) that, his son and other subjects in the kingdom had overthrown Khilji supremacy. He kept showing them that he was still on their side, only out of fear. HHe requested Khilji to send some powerful sardar onto Devagiri!

Shankardev Fights Malik Kafur

Malik Kafur’s army reached Devagiri. Shankardev attacked Malik with full preparation for battle. Battle started and Shankardev had to suffer a crushing defeat. Yadav army started running away in all directions. Shankardev also had to run away helplessly. Malik again looted the Devagiri town. But he also got the biggest loot. King Ramdevrao himself was captured by Malik Kafur. He arrested the king. With all the loot and the King in captivity, Malik went to Delhi in all military splendour (Saturday Dt 24 March 1307).

Allauddin was excessively happy with Malik. One more insult was added against Maharashtra’s name in history. The King himself was consigned to Delhi’s captivity. Ramdevrao was placed under house arrest for six months. Allauddin treated him with some respect. Finally, he conferred upon Ramdevrao an epithet ‘Rayarayan’. One lakh tankas and Navsari pargana were also given to the king as Jagir. Ramdevrao agreed with Khilji to ‘send the annual tribute to Delhi without failure’. Khilji allowed this father-in-law to go to Devagiri after six months’ house-arrest. Ramdevrao’s daughter Jyeshthapalli was Allauddin’s begum, wasn’t she?!

Ramdevrao returned back to Devagiri. Prince Shankardev was dejected. The flow of tribute had restarted back towards Delhi. Whatever epigraphical references (copper-plate as well as rock-cut) of Ramdevrao have been found after this (after 1307 AD), in them he has attached the new royal epithet conferred upon him by Delhi – Rayarayan! And he has also proudly carried the old epithet Praudhapratap Chakravarti!

Prince Shankardev Yadav’s proud heart was not at rest.

Around the same time the Delhi army campaigned against Andhra Pradesh’s capital Warangal. The Afghan army wanted to capture the Andhra Telangana Kingdom also in the same manner. But they got lost in the Godwana jungles. So Ramdevrao had sent his own guide to help them out. His name was Parshuram Dalvi.

And Telangana also fell into slavery.

The Last Stand

Shortly after this (1309 AD) King Ramdevrao died. Shankardev assumed the Devagiri throne and he overthrew the feudatory status of Allauddin. Stopped the tribute (after 1309).

Allauddin became angry at Devagiri. The next three years continuously, Shankardev did not send the tribute to Delhi at all. Allauddin again sent his army with Malik Kafur to attack Devagiri. This was the third Afghan campaign. Khilji ordered Malik to finish off the Devagiri army, and capture the whole kingdom. He ordered Malik to start living there, build a Jumma masjid and start propagating islam.

The campaign started. Shankardev was fighting like a true Kshatriya. The battlefield was on like a forest fire. Heads were being cut off. Blood was flowing freely and suddenly misfortune struck! Maharashtra was hit on its head! Shankardev was killed! Malik Kafur killed him. The great deluge! The earth started to rock. Shesha (who holds earth over his head) started rocking. Massacre started. Malik rode up to Devagiri. The Garuda standard of Maharashtra’s prosperity, independence, religion, and civilization broke down with one Khilji swipe! The golden throne wavered. Fire took over. Temples were broken. Immeasurable wealth of the royal household was pulled onto the streets. Whips started lashing. The tides of oppression started climbing new heights. Blood started getting sprayed. A tidal wave of blood started surrounding Devagiri and started pulling it down with itself. Independence gave the last convulsion. Spine was broken and Maharashtra’s golden Dwarka sank! Maharashtra’s golden Dwarka sank along with its king, throne, court, insignia, army, commanders, and the standard itself! Devagiri sank! Only wails and cries remained![ref]


Maharashtra which was built by Kings and subjects after toiling hard, was treaded upon by the enemy hooves. Households started getting devastated. Massacres started happening. Beautiful temples and excellent idols started getting broken to pieces. Allauddin had given express orders to Malik Kafur to turn a blind eye towards any crimes and atrocities committed by their soldiers.

Allauddin Khilji was in Delhi around this time. He was suffering from dropsy. He had encamped in his final camp on the border of cemetery. Still there was no let-up in his cruel nature. Khilji called up Malik Kafur to Delhi from Maharashtra. Malik was his most trusted and beloved slave. Malik kept his army in Maharashtra and started towards Delhi.

Had Maharashtra lost its anger, pride, valour, manhood, and everything else? Youthfulness was finished? Or had it lost its youth?

No! They were alive. Awake. But they were beneath the ash. And suddenly out of that ash, rose a burning ember. He had been burdened so far. His name was Harpaldev. He was married to one of the princesses of Ramdevrao. His son-in-law. He drew his sword for vengeance and thousands of swords gathered under his standard. He suddenly threw the bombshell of revolt against the Pathans. Harpaldev finished off the Pathan force kept back by Malik Kafur. The ones remaining started running towards Delhi. Harpaldev uprooted the Khilji supremacy. Maharashtra became independent again.

Allauddin Khilji Dies

At the same time, Allauddin Khilji became Jannat-nashin in Delhi. Meaning he went to heaven (Dt 19 December 1316). Delhi started witnessing a history befitting the Sultanate tradition. Throats started getting slit for power. Eyes started getting gouged. Allauddin’s own children were blinded. Umarkhan Shahabuddin who was his son with Ramdevrao’s daughter was also killed. He was just six years old. Exactly thirty-five days after Allauddin’s death (Dt 22 January 1317) Malik Kafur was also murdered. He was even more terrifying than a Yamaduta (Indian equivalent of the grim reaper). One such terrible man became the Emperor. His name was Qutubuddin Mubarik Khan Khilji. After becoming the Emperor, he turned his own attention to Devagiri for vengeance (1318 AD).

Fourth Attack

Maharashtra started burning again. Harpaldev’s army came short in front of the royal army from Delhi. It started running away. Harpaldev’s defeat exactly matched Shankardev’s one in terms of the reasons. And he was captured by Mubarik Khan alive. He was brought in front of that Sultan burning inside with vengeance. The Sultan gave a terrible order.

“इसकी खाल खींचकर देवगीर के दरवाजे पर लटका दिया जाए!”

The work started in earnest. Harpaldev was skinned alive. Sultan was satisfied looking at his bloody body writhing in pain. The Yadav son-in-law was hung atop Devagiri’s gateway-arch like a skinned goat. Yadav son-in-law, who had accepted the Seemant-Puja (reception offered at the time of marriage, on the town boundary), possibly at the same gateway-arch, was now hung over there like a piece of meat.

This was the justice of Sultans. Even death was not easily available. Till today, the Garuda standard flew atop Devagiri! Today, there were only vultures. This last blood red ember of vengeance was finally extinguished on the gateway of Devagiri. This fourth attack of Pathans on Maharashtra was also successful. But, the Pathans established the permanent standard of their power in Maharashtra during this fourth campaign. A terrible kingdom was established over Maharashtra. This country of courageous men, saints, intellectuals, virtuous, righteous, and hardworking farmers, honest rulers, dharmic and honest people fell under the slavery of Pathans.

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