Swami Ramanand Teerth





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Swami Ramanand Teerth

The last Nizam of Hyderabad Mir Osman Ali Khan signed the instrument of accession and Aurangabad, a part of princely Hyderabad, formally merged into the Union of India. Freedom fighters under the leadership of Swami Ramanand Teerth led the Marathwada Mukti Sangram.

Marathwada Mukti Sangram

Swamiji stepped in politics of Hyderabad State (then Kingdom) from 1937-1938.The Partur Session initiated the environment for politics in Marathwada Region. In 1937, there took place the Maharashtra Parishad Session under the chairmanship of Govind Rao Nanal at Partur and sparked enthusiasm among the youth. The Monarch Nizam restricted the newspapers, gatherings, printing and had suppressed the people. No meetings or gatherings could take place without the Government’s permission. In education sector, the language of Minorities Urdu .The language of minorities Urdu was promoted ,even as the medium for University Education. Education was Scarce. Women couldn’t learn beyond Primary Education. The University Education instead of giving  of all inclusive education and Nation Building Teachings  ,imposed a specific religion’s  teachings rather than being educated with all inclusive and Nationalism provoking thoughts.

The second Session of Maharashtra Parishad Session was conducted at Latur in 1938.This time Disobedience was being talked and considered. Mr. Digambar Rao Bindu, Kashinath Vaidya and Swamiji were consolidated as a Council and were left with the decision for future Programme and the session was adjourned as the Prohibition. In this period only, the Andhra Parishad committee and Karnataka Parishad Committee also started the spreading social awareness. Even they were banned by the Nizam Government. To relieve the committee from the claws ,it was decided the unite the 3 committees and ‘Hyderabad State Congress’ this organisation was founded. But, the Nizam Government even banned this organisation. So, no another option was left besides Disobedience.

Due to selfless service done by Swamiji, he was supported by Youth of all divisions. Swamiji, had mixed with the youth so much through contacts and meetings. Opposing Swamiji was not possible now. As a result , Disobedience was decided for State Congress. As decided, first Group performed Satyagraha under the leadership of Govind Rao Nanal. Second group performed Satyagraha under Swamiji. They were arrested. In these times, Arya  Samaj also started Satyagraha for the Religious rights with the help of Arya Samaj outside the state. Hindu Mahasabha also started disobedience for Civil rights.

In 1940, some specific people were granted permission for Satyagraha by Mahatma Gandhi which included certain people like Swamiji, Achyut Bhai and many more. With the ‘Chale Jaon’ movement Swamiji was again reposted .In this period, many incidents were taking place in Hyderabad Princely State. After noticing the power of People ,the Monarch Government had put worth an offer stating if the name of ‘State Congress’ is changed, they will think to permit any another organization to flourish. The Volunteers agreed to change the name as ‘Hyderabad National Conference’ ,only when they were guaranteed that  common people will gain civil rights under Nizam Government. All the political prisoners were released but the government refused to fulfil their words and denied the ‘grant’ for organisation.

Far sight and Diplomacy

After the gain of Independence in 1947,the politics of Hyderabad got a new way. After the Independence of India, Nizam wasn’t ready to merge the Princely state of Hyderabad in India. His intension for separate Islamic Nation wasn’t hidden at all. In that period only, the devious Nizam was in conversation fir negotiations with Pakistan and was interested in Taking help from United Nations as well. Afterall ,he was extremely ambitious towards formation of his separate state. Swamiji saw this as a grave danger towards the Nation. As a result, “Hyderabad is Inseparable part of India, we wont be quit until it gets dissolved in India”, he declared. As an action has equal and opposite reaction, he was arrested and many Political activists were put in jail which led to sparks of  1947-1948. Many activists went become underground and the struggle gained momentum.

The Razakaar Movement which was formed in Hyderabad had been looting, burning and torturing the common people which had crossed the pinnacle of oppression. The subjects of Nizam also took weapons in hand to fightback for self-defence.  The people attacked custom offices, Police stations, Government Offices and made Government Back off from its fronts. The Umri Bank was attacked and Looted in full day light. Although, the Tricolour was banned, people started hoisting tricolour on their hoses. Women started participating in large amounts. Nizam was terrorised by all of this. At that time Swamiji was in Jail.  All o these activities were conducted under the leadership of Digambar Rao Bindu, who was the colleague of Swamiji. Swamiji had planned the alternative strategies even for the times ,if he would have been in Jail. At last, Swamiji was released.

Swamiji informed the Government of Union of India about the oppression . He again and again informed Jawaharlal Nehru and Sardar Patel about the inhuman tortures and anti national acts the state of Hyderabad was conducting. He met Mahatma Gandhi time to time to personally brief him about the scenario. As a result of this actions, with the Initiative of Sardar Patel, Police action was taken which led to fall of the Hyderabad Princely State. Swamiji had known that India could never have become a peaceful and developed nation ,with an Islamic Princely state of Hyderabad at its Centre.

Nizam tries to change Swamiji’s mind

In this period ,the struggles for 15 August had already started. Nizam sent his Prime Minister Liyakat Ali and Secretary of Home Ministry to Swamiji for Negotiations in the Prison. They tried to convince and gain support from Swamiji for their Policies .Not only this, they released Swamiji for 2 months from the Jail. Instead, Swamiji took the benefit of this opportunity by conveying the plans to the activists. Swamiji and Government of India requested Nizam to merge the Hyderabad within Union of India. Still, the stubborn Nizam wasn’t ready for the merger of State and therefore, Government of india in November 1947 made a treaty with Nizam known as ‘Standstill Agreement’, giving time period of 1 year . Nizam ,used this opportunity to sustain his control over state.

Letter to the Nizam

As Swamiji was in Jail ,the Action Committee had also participated in the negotiations. Government of India has sent V. P. Menon, K .M. Munshi and Sardar Patel for negotiating for and between Swamiji and Nizam. Swamiji was with his full power, was convincing the importance of merger of Hyderabad in India. As a Full and Final option, Swamiji sent a detailed letter ,stating his stand on 23rd January 1948 and cleared his stand. “Nizam and Razakar should instantly stop the oppression of people. This oppression is being done over people whole are non-violent, unarmed and Ethically correct. These is Ridiculous. Merge the state in the Union of India and establish a responsible State System”, was the message in the Letter. But, Nizam ignored it.

‘This is the correct time'

On the another front ,the patients of activists and People of Hyderabad was reaching its height. They were becoming demotivated and fed up of tortures . Giving the idea of this scenario in Hyderabad, Swamiji requested Sardar Patel for Instant Action. Because, as the Home Minister of India ,he was responsible for solving the problems of Princely states. Even sardar Patel was planning for a strong Police action in mid of negotiations. He had planned for a police action till Nizam had been completely defamed . At last, after taking all points in mind and concluding the favourable time, he decided for a Police Action.

Hyderabad Princely state was liberated on 17 September 1948 through Police Action and Nizam decided to merge The princely state with India. However ,on this historic day, Swamiji was in Prison. He was released out after the surrender of Nizam. Thousands of people welcomed their leader with tears if happiness in their eyes. Swamiji, cheering their excitement, was also urging them to be peaceful and patient.

Post Merger

What after liberation of Hyderabad's? Was the big question before Swamiji. Because even after the surrender of Nizam, the complications in Hyderabad weren't solved completely and the question was intricate and knotty. The future of the state and the people of Hyderabad was a big issue. The merger of Hyderabad, separation of Nizam ruled states and restructuring of three provinces were major points of issues. These questions, being intricate and complicated, could not be solved using force and repression. It needed diplomacy and intellectual tactics to solve this questions. Swamiji put on all his intellectual strength in an effort to achieve this.

Unfortunately, Swami ji had to struggle with his own people during this period. The fierce movements by the communists in Telangana had made the situation more serious. Major L.N. Chowdhary was taking care of the reign as military governor and the military was oppressing the farmers along with the communists in Telangana to suppress the communist actions .So, in order to end this military rule, Swami ji tried and set up the provisional government.

Division of Hyderabad and restructuring of provinces were still the major issues of arguments. Retrograde Muslims, moderate congress leaders, landholders and landlords along with prime minister Nehru were against the division of Hyderabad. The other three groups except prime minister Nehru had interests engaged in the state of Hyderabad and hence stood against it's division. Nehru on the other hand was in a delightful imagination of confluence of diversified Indian cultures Hyderabad had and hence wanted Hyderabad to stand as a monotonous state and not get divided. This created intense controversies among Nehru and Swami ji .Furthermore, in the 1953 Hyderabad session of All India 

Congress, Swami ji ,being the chief organizer, highlighted the issue of division and merging Hyderabad. Later, in his presidential speech Nehru stood against division of Hyderabad and restructuring of provinces. This was also the time when Swamiji’s diplomacy and endurance was tested. Finally, Nehru had to support Swami ji.  After formation of State restructuring commission, Swamiji felt satisfactory as the liberation of Hyderabad and it's monotonous existence was of great danger by all means.

United Maharashtra Movement

Hereafter, the United Maharashtra Movement began to gain momentum in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra. Swamiji’s role was nourishing to this fight. In 1953,the State reorganization resolution was approved by a majority in the Parliament. According to this state of Hyderabad got divided accordingly and merged in the states as follows;

3 districts in Karnataka,8 in Andhra Pradesh and 5 districts in Maharashtra. This event has a unique significance in history. Due to this event, the demon of Nizam’s rule was buried forever. Risk of intervention of foreign power was destroyed forever. Swami Ramanand Tirtha was the sculptor of this great work. Along with the liberation of Hyderabad, the issues like division and merging of the state were tactfully solved by him.

The glory of this merger work of Swami ji is described by S.S. Joshi in these words; “The name of Swami Ramanand Tirtha must be written in gold letters in context of regional unity of India and democracy. Even though the leaders like Nehru being wrapped in the illusion of southern culture of Hyderabad, Swami ji created awareness of this gruesome reality."


Swamiji, with his diplomacy and intellect, saved the integrity of India by flying away this difficult situation. He narrated the entire situation of Hyderabad and the importance of armed movement to Gandhiji who was amiable and against violence all his life and got a approval from him for it. This gives a direct reflection of Swamiji's diplomacy and intellectual skills. He devoted his entire life to motherland and fulfilled his pledge he took in his childhood. After merger, he could have got any great position in politics but he chose to serve the people. Swami ji being the fortune tellers of Marathwada, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka, holds utmost respect and love in their hearts. He is known as ‘Mahatma Gandhi’ of these three Provinces.

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