The Bhagavad Gita, often referred to as the Gita, is a 701-verse Hindu scripture that is part of the epic Mahabharata, It is considered to be one of the main holy scriptures for Hinduism.
'Bhagavad Gita' comprises of two Sanskrit words. Bhagavad draws its etymology from the word Bhagavan that refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead and Gita that means song. Sometimes we hear the Gita referred to in English as The Song of God, and this is a reasonable English translation of the title and a fairly accurate description of the Gita's essence.
The Bhagavad Gita was rendered by Shree Krishna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, to His friend Arjuna on the battlefield of Kurukshetra around five thousand years ago. The Gita has a very unique position in the world as it is the only book that contains the actual words spoken by the Supreme Personality of Godhead. You can find many religious and philosophical books in the world but there is no book, except Bhagavad Gita, which claims to contain the words directly spoken by God. Even in the Vedic literatures the other sections of the Vedas may have quotes from God but they are written about God, they describe God, rather than being a direct conversation with God.
The Bhagavad- Gita is considered by eastern and western scholars alike to be among the greatest spiritual books the world has ever known. In a very clear and wonderful way the Supreme Lord Krishna describes the science of self-realization and the exact process by which a human being can establish their eternal relationship with God. In terms of pure, spiritual knowledge the Bhagavad- Gita is incomparable. Its intrinsic beauty is that its knowledge applies to all human beings and does not postulate any sectarian idealogy or secular view. It is approachable from the sanctified realms of all religions and is glorified as the epitome of all spiritual teachings. This is because proficiency in the Bhagavad- Gita allows one to access the eternal principles that are fundamental and essential for spiritual life. Grasping the essence of this scripture enables one to perfectly understand the esoteric truths hidden within all religious scriptures.
Chapters List :
Bhagawad Gita has total of 18 chapters and they are listed below[ref] -
- Chapter -1 : Arjun Vihd Yog : Lamenting the Consequences of War
- Chapter -2 : Snkhya Yog : The Yog of Analytical Knowledge
- Chapter -3 : Karm Yog : The Yog of Action
- Chapter -4 : Jna Karm Sanys Yog : The Yog of Knowledge and the Disciplines of Action
- Chapter -5 : Karm Sanys Yog : The Yog of Renunciation
- Chapter -6 : Dhyn Yog : The Yog of Meditation
- Chapter -7 : Jna Vijna Yog : Yog through the Realization of Divine Knowledge
- Chapter -8 : Akhar Brahma Yog : The Yog of the Eternal God
- Chapter -9 : Rja Vidy Yog : Yog through the King of Sciences
- Chapter -10 : Vibhti Yog : Yog through Appreciating the Infinite Opulences of God
- Chapter -11 : Vihwarp Darhan Yog : Yog through Beholding the Cosmic Form of God
- Chapter -12 : Bhakti Yog : The Yog of Devotion
- Chapter -13 : Khetra Khetraja Vibhg Yog : Yog through Distinguishing the Field and the Knower of the Field
- Chapter -14 : Gua Traya Vibhg Yog : Yog through Understanding the Three Modes of Material Nature
- Chapter -15 : Puruhottam Yog : The Yog of the Supreme Divine Personality
- Chapter -16 : Daivsura Sampad Vibhg Yog : Yog through Discerning the Divine and Demoniac Natures
- Chapter -17 : hraddh Traya Vibhg Yog : Yog through Discerning the Three Divisions of Faith
- Chapter -18 : Mokha Sanys Yog : Yog through the Perfection of Renunciation and Surrender
Unable to deal with the immediate problem at hand, Arjun approached Shree Krishna for a palliative to overcome the anguish he was experiencing. Shree Krishna did not just advise him on his immediate problem, but digressed to give a profound discourse on the philosophy of life. Hence, the purpose of the Bhagavad Gita, above everything else, is to impart Brahma Vidya, the science of God-realization.
The Bhagavad Gita is not content with providing a lofty philosophical understanding; it also describes clear-cut techniques for implementing its spiritual precepts for everyday life. These techniques of applying the science of spirituality in our lives are termed Yog. Hence, the Bhagavad Gita is also called Yog Shastra, meaning, the scripture that teaches the practice of Yog.
The Gita combines the concepts expressed in the central texts of Hinduism the Vedas and Upanishads which are here synthesised into a single, coherent vision of belief in one God and the underlying unity of all existence. The text instructs on how one must elevate the mind and soul to look beyond appearances which fool one into believing in duality and multiplicity and recognise these are illusions; all humans and aspects of existence are a unified extension of the Divine which one will recognise once the trappings of illusion have been discarded.