Two person in Indian history Jagadguri Sankaracharya and Acharya Chankya will always be remembered, one for preaching the Sanatan or Hindu Dharma across the whole India and the other for unifying all the states as Bharatavarsh and awaking the spirit of nationalism. Similarly in the 20th century when incomplete western ideology is prevailing in the country, we are going to structure a Indian political,economic and social ideology i.e. Integral Humanism.[ref]
-Deen Dayal Upadhyaay
Background and Need
Every Independent nation is supposed to safeguard, empower and stable his freedom. And in light of that a nation makes life of his citizens happy,meaningful, prosperous and unite the whole society in one feeling that is nation first. Similarly when India gets freedom after centuries of foriegn rule, there is lot of expectations of society that now we will restrucure the whole India on our glorious history before the invasion of forigners. After much announcements and promises the policy makers failed to do so.Inquality, injustice, insecurity are prevailing likewise in the forign rule even things get more worst. Government's unfaithful and unconfident nature leads to a situation in which the nation forgot its moral values.[ref] The reason behind present disorder is policymaker's unconsciousness about our national values. India which was a superpower, turns into a blind follower of west. This leads to forget of glorious past by common people also. This is the condition in which Deen Dayal ji thinks about a Indian way of economic and social development i.e. Integeral Huminism.
The center of our whole system should be human, who is the living representative of the universe and its instrument as per the justice of 'Yat Pinde Tad Brahmande'. Material tools are the means of human happiness, not the end. The system in which the idea of a different interest is considered only from an average human being or of a one-sided human being in place of a virtuous, human being inspired by many aspects of body, mind-intellect and soul, is incomplete. Our basis is the integral human being, who has the ability to represent many integral entities at the same time. We have to develop all the systems of life on the basis of Integral Humanism.
Many ideologies have been prevalent in the name of humanism. But because they are not inspired by the thinking of Indian culture, they are basically materialistic. For the moral nature or behavior of human beings, they could not present any material explanation. By rejecting spirituality, the relationship and behavior of man and man and the world cannot be harmonized.[ref]
Key Concepts of Integeral Huminism
1. Indespensability of Indian Cultural Establishment:-
Democracy, Equality, Nation's freedom and World peace all are related assumptions of west. In western culture beyond these assumptions there was a conflict between all four. While finding answer of these questons they introduced capitalism and communism. But this(capitalism or communism) doesn't lead to any solution, even they make the problem more worst and lead to many new problems. India's culture presents the ideological prespective which is more suitable and have a capacity to resolve these problems.In absence of the Indian prespective world losses the human thinking and development. India's hypostatical truth both are independent beyond nation and time. Our(India's) knowledge is not only for us but for the whole world.[ref]
Culture of India is inregeralist i.e. accepting the visible differences of the different beings of the universe and the different partss of life, it findes unity in them and establishes coordination among them.Instead of conflict, it considers the action of the creation on the basis of interdependence, complimantirly, compatibility and cooperation. It is not one sided but all round. Our approach is not communal or classist but it is omniscient and transcendentalist. Unity is its pivot.[ref]
3. Individual and Whole:-
Many ideologies have been born in the West, imagining the struggle between the individual and the population, considering either of them as the main and ultimate goal of the entire activities. But the visible person also represents the invisible universe. Along with 'ego', the existence of 'self' is also coexist with each 'ego'. The tendency of the community is reflected in each 'unit'. The individual is the instrument of the whole and its fibers of knowledge. The destruction or underdevelopment of the individual will cripple the population. The spiritual practice of an individual cannot be different from the worship of the whole. How can any organ become happy by harming the body? The existence of a flower lies in the beauty of the petals and the meaning of life in creating and improving its appearance by staying with the flower. There is no conflict between individual liberty and society's interest.[ref]
4. All round Development of Human:-
The person is a set of body, mind, wisdom and soul. Take care of the four in the person's all-round development. Without deleting the hunger of the four, the person can not experience pleasure and neither can develop his personality. The advancement of both physical and spiritual is essential. These hunger dysfunction with the means of livelihood, peace, knowledge and statutory. The desire for all round development of human inspires a person to work for society.[ref]
5. Purusharth Chatushtya:-
For the development of human and for the welfare of society, Purusharth Chatushtya i.e. Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksha are imagined. Dharama, Artha, and Kama all are of equal importance and uncomplete without each other. If we consider one more important than other and move ahead, then this is incomplete thinking. Artha and Kama are the means of accomplishment and Dharma is the base.[ref]
The overall idea of the four Purusharthas" Vidurji said, Artha is binding, Dharma is binding, and Kama is binding. The biggest thing is Moksha . After attaining Moksha , nothing remains to be achieved, then there is no desire. That's why Nishkaam to attain Moksha by feeling, this is the biggest effort.
Yudhishthira put an end to this dispute of Vidura. He said that no effort is great. Taking all four together is a virtue. Will try to get one, he is incomplete and One is also a sinner to try to achieve. To think of one is to break a human into pieces, but it is true that human life cannot be broken into pieces. Therefore, it is necessary to have a united and holistic thought of the four Purusharthas."[ref]
6. Form of Religion:-
Many times religion was misinterpreted by considering it as a sect or Majhab. This mistake is due to the translation of the word 'religion' in English to 'Dharma'. The real meaning of dharma is - those eternal rules, on the basis of which there is a conception of any existence and by following which one can attain abhyudaya and Nishreyas. The basic principles of religion are eternal, but their details change according to the country, time and situation. In this transitional world, religion is that principle which brings stability. That is why religion is considered to be the controller. The sovereignty lies in him.[ref]
7. Soul of Nation-Chiti :-
Society is not merely a group or aggregate of individuals, but a living organic being. The nation is formed by a society which keeps maternal feelings towards a particular land. Each nation has its own special nature, which is not the result of historical or geographical reasons, but is innate. This is called 'chiti'. The rise and fall of nations depends on the favorable or unfavorable behavior of the mind. Nations with different characteristics can complement each other and form human unity. The nature of nations is not opposed to human unity, if any conduct is seen against it, it is a perversion. Human unity by destroying nations is as impossible and undesirable as the existence or development of a population by destroying individuals.[ref]
8. Expresson Tools Of Chitti:-
The consciousness of the society gives birth to many institutions to express itself and to facilitate the individuals to perform various purusharthas. They have the same position in the society as different parts of the body. Caste, Varna, Panchayat, Sampradaya, Sangh, Pug, Marriage, Property, State etc. are such institutions. The state is important, but not paramount.[ref]
9. Importance of State:-
In Krita Yuga, when human beings used to treat each other on the basis of mutual duty, there was no state. But that is an ideal situation and is possible only when everyone is completely non-dual, selfless, and devout. In general, the state is an essential institution to maintain order in the society and to provide the facility of religious observance to every constituent.[ref]
10. Ideal state- Dhrama Rajya:-
The ideal of the Indian state has been 'Dharma Rajya'. It is a non-sectarian state. Tolerance and respect for all sects and systems of worship is an essential quality of the Indian state, according to the tendency of his faith and conscience, the right of worship of every citizen is intact and with any person in the administration or policy direction of the state. There can be no discrimination on the basis of Mat or Sampardyay. Dharmarajya is not a theocracy or a religious state, 'Dharmarajya' does not consider any person or institution to be sovereign. All are bound by rules and duties. The executive, the legislature and the people are all subject to religion. Self conduct is not allowed anywhere. The 'Rule of Law' of English (rule according to the law) is the closest word to express the imagination of Dharmarajya. Dharmarajya is capable of stopping autocratic and authoritarian tendencies and to save democracy from being distorted into freedom. Other imaginations of the states are authoritative, but Dharmarajya is duty-oriented. As a result, there is no scope for the apprehension of violation of one's rights, the longing for unlimited rights, dissatisfaction with limited rights, neglect of duties when possessed, rights-items, conflict between different rights.[ref]
11. Duty and Right:-
In "Dharamrajya" no one can suspend public rights. The public has aduty to be aware of these basic rights. Without rights and awareness "Dharampalan" is not possible. 'Right" aids a person to becomr self independent in realisation of his duties and help him to join himself with major power i,e a nation or society.[ref]
Rights and Duties are two sides of a triangle having Dharma as a base. A soldier has a right of weapon, without weapon he is unable to do his duty(protection of nation). When and how the weapon is used, decided bythe Dharma.
Democracy is an instrument for the prestige of public rights and the performance of public duties. Democracy is needed not only in the political sphere, but also in the economic and social spheres. In fact, democracy is indivisible. The absence of democracy in any one region will not allow democracy to flourish in another region. Tolerance, dignity of the individual and unity with the community are the lifeblood of democracy. Without these expressions the external form of democracy is lifeless and inert. If Chaitanya is present, then there can be a difference in the form of democracy from the time and situation of the country. The right to choose and be elected its representatives is the main feature of political democracy. Freedom of business and consumption is essential for economic democracy. Social democracy is established by equality of status and opportunity. Efforts have to be made that these rights should be complementary and nourishing to each other, not antagonistic and destructive.[ref]
Freedom is the natural aspiration of man and nation. There is neither happiness nor peace in independence. Along with political freedom, economic and social freedom is also needed. Political freedom is the rule not to interfere with the natural interest of the individual and the population and to always follow it. Economic freedom is not to interfere with the interests of man due to the existence or absence of money. Social freedom is not a hindrance in the natural development of the society but to be a seeker. Without these freedoms being national, they cannot be attained by the individual. Everyone gets freedom by performing their duty by all the organs of the state.
Like democracy, liberty is also indivisible. There can be no other two freedoms(social and economic) without administrative freedom. Without economic freedom, man cannot get social and to some extent political freedom, and without social freedom, the meaning makes man dependent on both emotion and lack.[ref]
Anarchy is only a thing of the Krit era in the economy as in the system of governance, that is, the principle of laissez faire can work in this condition in a benevolent form, otherwise it will not. Therefore, Arthayam is necessary to organize the production, exchange and consumption of money. For this, many institutions are born in the field of economics also. The state also has an important responsibility in this matter. But the subjection of all industries or means of production under the ownership and management of the state gives rise to the centralization of economic and political power. So it's not right. But it also has to be accepted that for the beginning of the process of economic development, to maintain discipline in the economy and for the achievement of the basic goals of the nation, it is the duty of the state to exercise planning, direction, regulation, control in the economic field in general. And also take the responsibility of ownership and management in special areas and situations.[ref]
15. Absence and Excess of wealth:-
The absence of wealth leads to the loss of Dharma, the effect of wealth also harms religion. Economic freedom is violated by both the absence of wealth and the excess. Lack of wealth is the lack of sufficient capital to sustain or increase production and the non-attainment of an affordable livelihood. This applies to both the individual and the nation. people forgot the means of wealth and desire to spend it on Dharma ,which leads to arrogance, economic inequality and devaluation of currency . [ref]
16. Ownership of Propert
The question of property ownership is important. Some consider the individual to have an unfettered right over the property. On the other hand there are those who regard private property, especially private ownership of the means of production, as the root of all evil. On the basis of 'Ishavasyamidam Sarva', some elements advise man to use the whole property as God's trust. In theory the idea of 'trusted' is good, but in practice the question of 'belief' should be bound by which rules and instructions and who should be bound, the question remains.
A person or a group of persons with whom the individual is involved for all the major dealings and necessities of life cannot live without property. Karma is associated with outcoming of Karma. Wealth arises out of the freedom to enjoy and use what is acquired. Saving by not consuming the entire income is a natural tendency and a national quality. Human beings also feel a sense of prestige, security and satisfaction in wealth. Hence we can not not destroy the wealth completely.
The basis of wealth is society-relative. There is not one single property arrangements for all things. There is no arrangement for the same thing at all places and for all times. This distinction has been fixed according to the needs of the society. Those who do not consider society to be the controller of wealth, they only want the society not to change the existing beliefs. The society has the right and many times it becomes its duty to change the property related beliefs. There is no such thing as an immutable and irrevocable right to property.
We have to accept the right to property within limits. These limits should be determined on the basis of the needs and values of life of the society and the individual. When property by its influence makes the owner lazy or luxuriant and others want or subservient, then it is necessary to regulate it. In case of change in property rights, the responsibility of rehabilitation of the affected person basically falls on the society. But the principle of compensation is necessary from the point of view of certainty and stability.[ref]
17. Criterion of Economy:-
Like the state system, the criterion of the economy should also be all-round development of human beings. Human happiness is the main goal of economic production and human power is its main means. Efforts to satisfy our needs by using the resources of nature have been the aim of human's economic activities. Which along with the successful fulfillment of this objective can be helpful in the all-round development of human beings, that is the appropriate system. A system in which economic capacity increases, but the power of development of other parts of humanity gets frustrated, it cannot be welfare. Human beings should be the center of our system.
The idea of a perfect human being, not only of a wealthy human being at the center of all creation, is incomplete in a developed capitalist economy. The enduring desire for maximum profit is the driving force of this system and the regulatory force of competition. This sentiment is incompatible with Indian philosophy of life. In response to the problems arising out of the capitalist economy, the aims of socialism, even after being penalized, did not prove to be of human benefit in the result. Because the analysis of the individual and society of Karl Marx, the father of scientific socialism, is fundamentally materialistic and therefore incomplete. In the role of class-struggle there cannot be a sense of voluntary enduring cooperation. [ref]
In both capitalist and socialist systems, there is a difference of opinion regarding the ownership of capital, but both result in centralization and monopoly. As a result, both ignore human beings. We need such an economy in which the individual's own motivation remains and he can develop humanity in his relations with other people of the society. Only a decentralized economy can achieve this goal.
18. Decentralised Economy:-
Centralization of power is not conducive to democracy and human liberty. Under national integration, there should be decentralization of political and economic powers from both geographical and commercial point of view. The historical process of industrialization in the western countries has led to the centralization of powers. It has been nurtured by the legal systems of Simit Samvay, Management Tribunal and Sutradhari Samvay etc. Many of the defects of the capitalist system are due to centralisation. The system made no attempt to prevent centralization of socialism. He was satisfied with merely snatching the ownership of capital from the hands of the individuals and handing it over to the states. But this has further increased the centralization and it increases the defects due to the convergence of both political and economic powers at one place. The treatment of disease is possible only through decentralization. Economic and social institutions will have to be redefined for this purpose. The latest innovations in science and technology favour decentralized industries. In this system of maintaining human personality and its all-round development is the most convenient. Small mechanized industries, small trade and agriculture in private or cooperative ownership are the basic basis of our economy. Large industries should be considered as an exception.[ref]
19. Criterion of Development:-
The criteria of progress are the maintenance of every person born, his education, so that he can contribute to his development as a responsible component of the society, for him to earn a living in a healthy and capable state, and if that is not possible due to any reason, then it is the responsibility of the society to make arrangements for maintenance and proper leave. Every civilized society maintains it in one way or the other. These are the main criteria of progress. Therefore, we have to accept the guarantee of a minimum standard of living, education, employment for livelihood, social security and welfare as a fundamental right.[ref]