Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, was an Indian warrior king. He established a competent and progressive civil rule with the help of disciplined military and well-structured administrative organisations. He also introduced new military tactics, pioneering guerrilla warfare methods, which used geography, speed, and surprise and focused pinpoint attacks to defeat enemies.
Aurangzeb's 50th birthday was to be celebrated in the highest place. On that day (12 May 1666), Aurangzeb himself wanted the glory of the Mughal emperor to be displayed in the court. He also invited Shivaji Maharaj for this greater event.
Shivaji Maharaj arrived in Agra with his eldest son, Shambhuji, and a small contingent of soldiers on May 12- Aurangzeb's 50th birthday.
As Shivaji Maharaj entered the hall, he placed his gift before Aurangzeb. The Emperor said nothing, not even a word of welcome. Shivaji Maharaj was led to the back of the hall. By now, it was clear that it was a trap. Shivaji Maharaj and his son were captives.
They were imprisoned for many months but, Shivaji Maharaj did not despair. He was always under guard with at least 1,000 men on duty. He used his time to gather information. He befriended the postmaster and a few subordinates of the emperor and collected information about the happenings around the kingdom.
Later, Shivaji Maharaj feigned illness and requested that his men be released so they could go back home. Aurangzeb granted this wish. His men went to several towns and settled there, after which Maharaj was ready to execute his plan.
Still feigning illness, Maharaj was to be treated by the doctor. But, then Maharaj said that he wanted to donate some sweets to the poor, the brahmins, and the fakirs. The soldiers arranged to bring sweets and distribute it. Fuladkhan, the chief of the guards was convinced that this is just for donation.
Days passed, boxes of sweets were checked regularly by the guards. After a period of time, the guards went slack and stopped checking.
One day, Shivaji Maharaj and his son emptied a large box and hid in it. The guards did not check the box and let it pass out of Agra. Hiroji Farjand, an associate of Maharaj took the place of Maharaj. When Shivaji Maharaj was safely a distance away from Agra, Hiroji Farjand asked the guards for permission to bring some medicine and vanished.
Thus Shivaji Maharaj and his men escaped from Auranjzeb's trap in Agra on 17th august 1666.